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Published: 8 July 2013

Journey through time to Martu country

Chris McKay

Chris McKay reviews a film that tells the engaging story of the return of a CSIRO ethno-ecologist to Martu country in remote Western Australia in 2011, to repatriate old photographs and records she assembled decades ago.

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Credit: Fiona Walsh

Handing back the past: a journey to Martu country with old photos, a new film by CSIRO ethno-ecologist, Fiona Walsh, makes you nostalgic for a time and a place you’ve never known.

The film transports us to Australia’s Western Desert, home of the Martu people, where Fiona narrates the story of her return in 2011 to a remote Aboriginal community, Parnngurr, with a large collection of photographs she took while working there in the 1980s and 90s.

Fiona wrote, directed and produced the documentary – her first – while working on a biodiversity project involving CSIRO, WA’s Rangelands NRM and the Martu.

The establishment of Parnngurr in the 1980s was part of the ‘homelands movement’, unique in the world for bucking the emergent global trends in development.1 The Martu turned their backs on the western way of life they encountered in the missions and mining towns, and returned to live on their country, on their own terms.

Fiona arrived at Parnngurr soon after, in the 1980s, working as a junior biologist. The photos she took then capture a truly unique moment in time, a sort of renaissance for Martu culture and custom.

At the outset of the film, Fiona appears anxious about seeing what has become of the community of Parnngurr, especially the Martu, in the 20 years she had been away. How did things work out in the interim? Would anyone care about the photos? Indeed, would anyone remember her?

As Fiona points out, the repatriation of photographs to the Martu is part of a worldwide movement by museums and researchers to return past records and artefacts to Indigenous peoples. This is particularly important in Australia, where so many Aboriginal people have been displaced and separated from their families and country. Many people are actively researching their own family history, making records like this a key part of piecing their picture together.

Fiona was keen for the documentary to highlight two important ethical obligations for other researchers working with Indigenous peoples.

The first is to ensure people’s knowledge and practices are recorded accurately and in a way that is true to their local meaning and intent. The other is to ensure records, such as photos and research findings – both old and new – are shared with the people who rightfully own them, in a medium that is useful to them.

Behind the immediate account of repatriation depicted in this film lie some more subtle threads to the story. In practical terms, the plants, animals, medicines, hunting and land management techniques that were fastidiously documented by the young biologist serve as a valuable reference. It is a resource that helped the Martu with their successful Native Title claim over an area of 13 million hectares.

Nowadays, these records are used by the Martu heritage and land management organisation, Kanyirninpa Jukurrpa (KJ), as well as the hundred or so Martu rangers supported by KJ to work on their country. The records allow them to observe how their country has changed – where weeds have invaded, how animal numbers have dwindled or remained – and they are also a strong reminder of the old ways and laws, which are ever-present in the dynamic and adaptive Martu society.

The other great story here is that of Fiona’s relationship with the Martu. The story of cross-cultural relationships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers in Australia is one that often goes untold. This film gives us a rare insight into what makes them work. Fiona obviously has strong bonds with the community founded on mutual trust and respect. She fitted in comfortably with the Martu women, she says, as they shared similar interests. It’s sad to learn that the women who had adopted her as a sister in the 1980s have now passed on. They had ‘grown her up’ and taught her about that country and a way of life very different from her own.

Fiona draws heavily on the old photographs throughout the film, which is great because they are so interesting.

David Nixon, editor of the popular Bush Mechanics series and now a producer with the regional production initiative, ABC Open, has made a nice contribution with the editing and sound.

Fiona’s decision to film and document the return journey to the Martu has turned out to be a stroke of genius. She has effectively created yet another extremely valuable record of Martu life in 2011. Only this time, the story is enriched by those earlier memories.

Watch Handing back the past now:

1 The homelands movement dates back to the 1970s and was started by Aboriginal people going back onto country from mission-run larger communities because of the high level of social dysfunction and political instability that had developed in these larger communities, and to protect sacred sites and maintain customary ways of living that could only continue on country.

Published: 22 July 2013

Generational change and the power of one

Mara Bun

‘You see,’ said California Institute of Technology Professor Nate Lewis in 2006, ‘the Earth has a 35-year thermal inertia and so what we're doing now is only the beginning because we're waiting 35 years even to see the effects of what we did 35 years ago. So it would be another 30 years until we started to really see, even at the only 380 parts per million level that we're doing now [ie 2006], what those effects are. And we'll be at 550 [ppm] by then...’

A new generation is finding new solutions to mobilising action on the world’s ‘wicked problems’.
A new generation is finding new solutions to mobilising action on the world’s ‘wicked problems’.
Credit: bo192/istockphoto

In the face of Professor Lewis’ gloomy prognosis , how can young people find hope for the future?

Last week, 30,000 primary school students started Green Cross Australia’s environmental education program Green Lane Diary. Over ten weeks, they will dive into an active learning journey that is aligned with the Australian curriculum. Our mantra is: ‘Think + Act + Share = Change.’

Green Lane Diary raises awareness of environmental risks to ecosystems and communities and celebrates students’ positive responses to these risks – through projects at home, school and in local communities. These activities are shared through interactive maps.

This model of active learning is supported by recent UCLA research addressing the communication of ‘actionable risk’. Though the study focuses on motivating people to prepare for natural disasters, the findings are relevant for motivating environmental behaviour change.

The UCLA researchers found that it is more important ‘... to emphasize the communication of preparedness actions (what to do about risk) rather than the risk itself.’ They also found Americans are ‘most likely to take steps to prepare themselves if they observe the preparations taken by others...’

The Green Lane Diary is a schools-based program designed to inspire 8-13 year olds to engage with ideas about living sustainably.
The Green Lane Diary is a schools-based program designed to inspire 8-13 year olds to engage with ideas about living sustainably.
Credit: Green Cross

This insight offers hope in a world where networks prevail.

Today’s social networks are embryonic compared to how people will connect with each other in 30 years’ time. And, given the exponential curve of early-21st-century scientific discovery, new opportunities for environmental action will emerge as today’s young people grow up. Theirs will be a highly connected world where the pace of change constantly increases.

A recent article by the Monitor Institute discusses the ‘network mindset’ as a catalyst for positive change.

‘Working with a network mindset,’ stress the authors, ‘means operating with an awareness of the webs of relationships you are embedded in. It also means cultivating these relationships to achieve the impact you care about.’

This mindset is almost hard-wired into today’s kids. And for those of us who – unlike our parents – are enjoying middle age connected to childhood friends through Facebook, networks also connect us to that sweet hopeful spot in what must now become a global change equation.

My own Facebook network reveals a powerful conduit for sharing ideas and actions for positive change.

One post on a Facebook page can instantly spread around the world.
One post on a Facebook page can instantly spread around the world.
Credit: M. Bun

My LinkedIn network adds another layer of influence. My 1,405 connections link to 11,499,380 professionals around the world. Astoundingly, over the past week, LinkedIn informs me that another 33,001 people connected to my network of networks.

LinkedIn creates opportunities for connecting in to a massive global 'network of networks'.
LinkedIn creates opportunities for connecting in to a massive global 'network of networks'.
Credit: M. Bun

At the recent Bonn Climate Change negotiations, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issued a call to action for the world’s youth to tackle climate threats, stressing that young people are ‘agents of change’ that bring fresh and innovative ideas to address this most pressing issue.

‘You are in the middle of a great transition era. To address climate change, we need fresh and innovative ideas,’ the Secretary General said.

‘Too often’, he said, ‘adults work to preserve business as usual and the status quo. Young people approach problems with new ideas and a new perspective.’

Embracing a network mindset that can turbocharge the rate of change, today’s youth have a real chance of addressing the wicked climate challenge that my generation is only now waking up to.

Mara Bun was a financial analyst with Morgan Stanley in the US before joined a World Bank earthquake reconstruction project in Nepal in 1989. She then moved to Australia embracing leadership roles with Greenpeace Australia and CHOICE. After a brief return to the business sector, Mara joined CSIRO as Director of Business Development, after which she took up the role of founding CEO of Green Cross Australia. Green Cross has been exploring the use of digital communications and social media to reach diverse audiences – for example,,; and

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